The language of sinks, topographic depressions, and pits…

Over the last several decades, there has been a tremendous confusion over the terminology used to describe the features that are involved in flow-enforcement of digital elevation models (DEMs) applied in surface drainage pattern modelling. In particular, the terms sink, depression, and pit have been used interchangeably and this has caused, in my opinion, a great deal of confusion in both the academic literature and practice. In a manuscript that I am currently drafting, I developed a typology of features involved in the flow-enforcement step, a necessary first-step for any process involving hydrological analysis of topographic data. The following flow-chart describes the relation between these overlapping concepts in what I think is a consistent manner.

A typology of features involved in flow-enforcement

A typology of features involved in flow-enforcement

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